OBE, Fellow of the Royal Society
Born in London, Alan Turing attends the Sherborne School studying classics from 1926 to 1931. From 1931 to 134, he studies at King's College, Cambridge, U.K. In 1936 he defines the Turing Machine, that is a theoretical computing machine based on the principle of computability that can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm. In 1938, Turing receives his Ph.D. in Logic, algebra, and number theory from Princeton university. In 1939, Turing produces the initial design of The Bombe, a machine for decrypting the German Enigma cipher machine, at the English Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park. Between 1939 and 1942, the German U-boat Enigma code is broken. Andrew Hodges, Turing's biographer states: “In 1944…Turing was almost uniquely in possession of three key ideas: 1) his concept 1936 of the universal machine, 2) potential speed and reliability of electronic technology, and 3) inefficiency of designing different machines for different logical processes.” A long distance runner before and after the war, in 1945 Turing joins the National Physical Laboratory and in 1946 he begins to work on computer and software design. Between 1947 and 1948, Turing works on programming, neural nets, and artificial intelligence. In 1951 he is elected Fellow of the Royal Society, a title awarded to distinguished scientists who are British, Commonwealth or Republic of Ireland citizens. He also works on non-linear theory of biological growth. In 1952, Turing is arrested as a homosexual and loses his security clearance. He commits suicide in 1954 by cyanide poisoning. In 1998 a Blue Plaque was put in Turning’s birthplace to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the computer. In 2008, Prime Minister Gordon Brown presents an official apology from Bletchley Huts for the Turing's arrest that led to his suicide.